Chapter 1. Introduction to computer 2010/11

Copyleft Updated 2010/08/22
The science and the scientific method
Example of the scientific method
Skepticism and critical thought
Some cases in the computer science

1.1 The science and the scientific method

It is frequent that the humans we seek explanations on what we see, we feel and we hear, that once found are used to being complexes and various. It is the form to work of our mind, that uses the intelligence to understand better our experiences.

Frequently it is sufficient to appoint with a name to a situation happened. For example, a farmer listens a strong sound originating in the sky and says "is a thunder". But not always the name gives us sufficient information on the theme, although if is soothing the capable fact to be of assigning a name, this signifies that we have had a similar experience previously and that we can recognize it. It indicates us that other people have also perceived the same type in fact.

From our experience we can deduce what will occur subsequently. The farmer will say "he will rain quick". We have been capable of organizing our perceptions so that we can recognize them as common models and we have learned to utilize an information that helps us to understand that with the ones that we find us in the everyday life. The farmer can say "God has been angered and sends these rays against us, quick will be sympathized with and will send rain". In other occasions the same God will send sun, or wind, or snow.


The theories develop in response to questions of the type ¿why? or ¿how? Some sequence is observed in fact, some regularity around two or more variable and someone is asked why this is thus. A theory tries to explain the facts and consists of:

One of the main consequences of the theories is that they serve us to predict facts that yet have not happened. In this way we can verify if a theory is correct or not, doing whose experiments results only cannot show that the theory is false, but also to suggest where is mistaken, and in this way theories corrected can be proposed.

Criteria of acceptance of a theory

The question that logically appears subsequently is ¿which are the necessary criteria to convince someone that an explanation given is correct? Of course, the answer depends on the type of person. For someone that inclines for accepting a theistic explanation can be sufficient with verifying that the explanation coincides with that of the religious books, other people accept an idea if is vouched for by someone al that him educated and intelligent is considered. Both sure arguments that do not convince to a scientific audience.

There can be more than one scientific explanation on a question. At times an explanation can include another, for example the kinetic theory of the gases includes the law of Gay-Lussac. An exam of cases in which the new theories on the nature they have been accepted can be of a lot of aid.

We suppose that in a period of the history have itself accepted a theory on the nature that provides an explanation of the events and that is valid in many cases, call it first theory accepted. We suppose that this theory have some defects that are recognized at least by some scientists, in these conditions should be proposed a new theory, in a way to rectify these defects. Continued factors of great aid are commented with a view to convince to the scientific community that accept a new theory:

A) Reductibilidad

The new theory should be at least as good as the old one. The norm that continues to show this criterion consists of show that in the pertinent situations the new theory is reduced to the old one.

When has accumulated a great body of information in a field, any modification should keep in mind all the achievements of the existing theories. This signifies that every person that desire to contribute something in this field, should know it very well, a theory exposed by an unskilled individual is very difficult that come to be respected.

The first criterion can be summarized of the following form: a new theory should conduct to the same results obtained with the theories accepted previously in all the cases that has been tested that they are useful.

B) Innovation

The new theory should be better than the old one, is not sufficient to give the same results that the previous one. Tells him that both theories are equivalent when in all the cases the predictions of the new theory are the same that those of the old one and the election among an or another is question of inclinations. If truly the new theory should replace to the previous one, should add somewhat new.

For example, the kinetic theory of the gases does not only reproduce all the achievements of Gay-Lussac and Archimedes, but helps to explain phenomena on the ones that the old theories did not have anything that to say. With aid of the kinetic theory we can calculate, for example the velocity of the sound and the resistance that the air offers to the projectiles that cross it.

It is more important the case in which a new theory is capable of obtaining correct predictions where the old one failed. This happened in the year 1900 when the physics said that the electrons of the atoms al to describe orbits around him should radiate energy and therefore they would fall in spiral toward the center of the orbit. As the atoms are stable, therefore contrary case we would not be we here, the previous theory is not correct. It was necessary the apparition of the Quantum Physics to explain the experimental facts.

A new theory should explain facts that have not been covered by theories previously accepted or that have been predicted of incorrect form.

C) Testabilidad

It should be possible to verify that a theory is correct. Normally the key argument in favor of a theory is that carry out a real prediction of the result of an experiment that have not been still performed. The theory of Maxwell of the electricity and proposed magnetism in 1873 predicted that the electromagnetic waves could be envoys through the space to next velocities to those of the light. The final verification arrived for part, among others, of the Italian one Guillermo Marconi.

So indefinite or complicated theories exist that are resisted to an experimental verification. The Oracle of Delphi in the old one Greece, proclaimed that was capable of predicting the future, but its assertions were always so indefinite that if the prediction did not turn out to be certain could be argued that badly had been interpreted. A theory that can always be readjusted so that explain any experimental result cannot be satisfactory.

They should be been able to obtain consequences of a new theory that differ of the other similar theories, and besides these consequences should be lent to experimental verification.

D) Elegance

A theory on the nature should be beautiful. This is another element (elegance or beauty) that helps to that a new theory have better reception. The scientists believe that the forms of the laws of the nature are simple, the most important physical theories of the past are very simple, like F = ma, AND = mc2.

A new theory should be inclined for a universal statement of its principles that be brief and of great content.

As it exposed Henri Poincaré (1854-1912), in the conference that offered in the Psychological Company of Paris.

¿ ... Which they are the companies math to the ones that we attribute them this character of beauty and of elegance, the ones that can produce us such emotion esthetics? They are the ones that have its harmoniously arranged elements, of such form that the mind can grasp without effort its totality, al time that perceives its details ...

And) Other considerations

Finally attention to the criteria should be called that should not be keep in mind. For example is not necessary that a scientific theory be according to the ideas of V. I. Lenin, by putting an example, without denying at no time the great importance of said person. Or it is neither necessary that agree with regard to what the Bible on the creation tells us, although many people creates it, without being given account that said document is a novel.

Scientific method

The election is not between theory and observations, but among better or worse theories to explain the observations; the facts are untouchables. But this does not it mean that the theories be humble servants of the observations, in fact almost all the scientists are more interested in the theories, being seen the experiments as some servants that permit to decide among several theories.

The scientific method can be described by means of the following process:

In practice, the scientific method is more complicated. Always it is not clear the methodology to do the experiments, that changes of an area of the science to another. There is "experiments" that can be done in a computer, and other where this is not so clear. The results should be accepted for experts in the corresponding area before being published. The experiments should be repeated independently, and at times themselves not the same results are obtained. The demonstrations should be verified, and occasionally errors are found.

In mathematics is admitted the to speculate on the consequences of some famous conjecture done not show with ¡a lot care to announce this dependence! Some experiments are so laborious that should be done among various scientists, or you split of the experiment they are assigned to other experts (statistical analysis, construction of instrumental and installations, data processing programs). There are experiments that require years or even decades to be carried out (spatial exploration), to build the instrumentalone (CERN), or for analyze the data.

Some observations occur in dates inaplazables (eclipses) or inconvenient places (volcanos). At times they are lost irremisiblemente part of the data, that one must supply of some form. There are unrealizable experiments with the available, or too expensive technology, or that require too much time (evolution). Do not only they change the theories, but also the axioms, definitions, model and classifications. Some philosophers arguyen, with certain reason, that not The scientific method exists, but many scientific methods.

¿Is infallible?

It be noted an important aspect of the scientific method, does not finish never; does not exist an "absolute scientific truth". But this does not it diminish the value of the applications of the science; the principle of Archimedes continues explaining why the ships float. The scientific method is infallible? Yes and not. Not, in the sense that is used to producing provisional theories that are false. We will speak more than this later.

Yes that is infallible in two senses, on the one hand, the scientific method never assures nothing of conclusive form, so cannot be mistaken. They said of another form, if you show that some scientific theory is wrong, are forming part of the same scientific method, that is autocorrigiendo thanks to your aid. This can seem a foolishness until is compared with other forms to obtain knowledge.

But in these cases is neither mistaken, because, given the nature inexperimentable of these phenomena, the scientific method does not validate anything al respect neither certain neither false. Again, this can seem a foolishness until they recall the problems that other doctrines have to delimit their reach.

Also it can be argued that though is possible that the scientific method be not sufficient to know every truth, at least is necessary the to have some form of self-criticism. We recall an opinion of Francis Crick, codescubridor of the molecule of DNA (acid desoxiribonucleico, DNA) collected in its book "The scientific search of the soul"; according to him, our brain evolved when we were hunter-gatherers, and therefore is a mere accident that with said organ we be capable nowadays to understand the complexity and own abstraction of the modern science, since of little this ability served us to leave In the epoch in which our brain reached its present form. As every face has its cross, this capable and so complex organ as is our brain, an imperceptible instrument provides us to set in motion the unlimited capacity that have to deceive us ourselves. And it adds Crick, more or less, that without a certain discipline as they provide the science and the skepticism, is very doubtful that the human kind had been capable of progressing culturally.

Karl Popper and the criterion of demarcation Very important

The philosophy of the science in the 20th century has been constituted in an activity whose main worry has been the problem of the scientific change. Inherent in this problem the problem of the evaluation of scientific theories is found. There is something as well as a scientific change? Progress in the science exists? In case such, ¿is susceptible of a theory of the scientific rationality?

Diverse philosophers have done famous for their contributions to this facet of the philosophy: Paul K. Feyerabend (1924-1994), Imre Lakatos (1922-1974), Thomas S. Kuhn (1926-1996) and Karl Popper (1902-1997).

The problem of the demarcation has to see fundamentally with the question: ¿How to discriminate between a scientific hypothesis and another that were more well a philosophical speculation or metaphysics or pseudociencia? The rational solution contributed it Popper.

What differentiates to the science of other types of knowledge is its systematic possibility of TO BE REJECTED by the data of the reality. As opposed to the empirical-inductive focus, according to which a statement is a scientist in the measure in which its TRUTH can be confirmed for the experience, in the focus rationalist of Popper and its followers, a statement will be scientist in the measure in which more itself arriesgue or he be exposed to a confrontation that show its FALSEHOOD, this is the criterion of demarcation.

According to this position, the science is distinguished of other know-how by being "falsable" (and not "verificable"), that is to say, because contains mechanisms oriented to determine its possible falsehood. The base of this criterion is in the same criticism al empiricism and al inductivismo: no matter how more a statement correspond faithfully with thousands of millions of cases of the reality, in principle swims impedes that suddenly a contradictory case appear.

If, for example, we observe milones of ravens and we see, besides, that all they are black, there is not logical reason to conclude in which every raven is necessarily black, since always fits the possibility that appear some of another color. And, it given that the complete assembly of all the possible cases escapes to the observation of the human being, never will be possible to VERIFY or to verify the truth of a statement as "all the ravens are black". But, on the other hand, yes will be always possible to determine its FALSEHOOD, for which a single case will suffice in which itself comply not the law. Therefore, the scientific knowledge does not pursue to show its truth, but to be exposed to any case that show its falsehood. Thus, scientific every statement will be able to be maintained only provisionally (still when elapse centuries), while not a case appear that it contradiga (that is to say, will never be able decisively TO BE VERIFIED); but, on the other hand, yes will be able to be refuted and rejected finally barely a data arise that deny it.

In synthesis, the scientific statements are distinguished exactly by being always exposed FALSEHOOD-proof. In this way, the "falsacionismo" comes to be the criterion of demarcation between science and not-science and, therefore, is the magnitude of its "contained of falsehood" what does more or less scientific to a knowledge given. Of the previous thing is inferred that the goal of the science and of the investigation will never be able to be the objective CERTAINTY, which does not exist, but, more well, the "verisimilitude", that is to say, the degree in which a statement be capable to leave unharmed of the tests of falsación and to prevail before other competitive statements by its greater capacity of cover before the data of the experience.

As opposed to the logical positivism, the rationalism waste the concept of "objective and immutable truth", accepts the relatividad of the scientific knowledge, admits the social factors and intersubjetivos that condition its validity and, perhaps it more important, presents its character of CORRECTIBILIDAD on the base of constant processes of falsación before the facts and before other options of knowledge.

Thus, and according to this interpretation, while the idealistic speculative knowledge (the rhetorical speeches, for example, or political, religious, subjetivistas, psicologistas, etc.) avails oneself of subterfuge to evade its confrontation with the experience and for escape to every evidence of falsehood, the scientific knowledge is validated, above all, in its possibilities of error. Since this angle remains fully accepted and justified the fact that be in the science, exactly, where the greater quantity of errors of the human knowledge be discovered, since other types of know-how evade the confrontations or risks and they hide their weaknesses. As counterpart, is also in the science where the major number of corrections is found and evolutions, while other types of knowledge remain stagnant and unproductive.

All in all, the plan of Popper of the scientific method is very simple and he himself expressed him in his more condensed form in the title of his famous book, Conjectures and refutations. The science is simply matter to have ideas and to put them to test, time and again, trying always to show that the ideas are wrong, for thus learn of our errors.

At present they are being seen great quantity of announcements and articles on methods or technical belonging to the pseudomedicina. They are clear examples of irrationality, and of what should not be never a scientific theory.

Continued some therapies are commented simply pseudocientíficas very gaudy, that some of the readers they will have suffered some time.

Homeopatía .- Invented by the German doctor Samuel Christian Hahnemann (1755-1843), treats the illnesses with dissolutions extremely diluted (in fact is used to being water sweetened). Its not validity is justified of understandable form without being an expert in sciences neither in medicine, only with the common sense.

I why do not believe that the homeopatía be cash?

What does someone do normally when feels sick? Generally, it will be going to see a doctor. Why? Because a doctor is supposed that is the most qualified person to study the symptoms that presents, to carry out all the necessary explorations for determine with accuracy that is affecting to his health, to administer substances of tested effectiveness in these cases or to intervene of more energetic way carrying out an operation, and to carry out the monitoring of the evolution of the patient. If he decides to administer some substance al patient, ¿how he is determined that that drug particularly has high efficient possibilities to be?

Since always the importance of the effect placebo in the process of healing has known itself. The effect placebo is a consistent not specific effect in the healing of an illness by the simple fact to treat it, ndependientemente of the type of processing that continue. Paracelso already advertia in the century XVI "should be known that the will is a powerful assistant of the medicine", in many cases the simple confidence of the patient in the doctor can produce a healing, and at times not even this confidence is necessary. Therefore if it intends to determine the effect of a new drug on an illness is done indispensable to eliminate the slant introduced by the effect placebo; this can be carried out by means of a trial or blind double test.

We imagine a group of quite homogeneous patients as for age, habits, clinical record, etc... that suffer a same illness and without they they know it, divide into two, Group TO and Group B, for example. We call to the new drug that we intend to study Drug I and we obtain a totally inoffensive substance and without therapeutic effects as for example, capsules with water distilled or tablets of lactose; we call to this substance Drug II. In a blind double trial is administered to one of the groups, we put the Group TO, one of the two drugs, we say the Drug I, while al Group B is administered him the Drug II; but so that neither the patients neither the doctors that treat they know them to that group belongs each one neither that drugs are being supplied them. Concluída the experience they meet the data of the two groups and they are analyzed to determine if the percentage of healings in the Group TO, for the one that the Drug was employed I, is greater that in the Group B, al that itself supply the substance inócua, the substance placebo, Drug II. If this is thus and is shown thus in other similar trials carried out on other groups is concluded that the Drug I is efficient against that illness. At any rate ¿why healings in the Group are produced B if only him is being administered a substance totally inócua?, by a part we have the fact that the simple processing, although be with an useless substance, aid to activate the mechanisms of defense of the own agency, on the other hand we have the fact of that many illnesses have components psicosomáticos and finally we have the fact of that a Number of illnesses they present a certain period of remission, the illness appears, progresses and later disappears although itself no processing be carried out.

This introduction can seem somewhat extensive but will be very useful at the moment of to discuss some points relating to the homeopatía.

The homeopatía was originated in Germany at the beginning of the 19th century. Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) published in 1810 a voluminos titled book "Organon", in the developed and exposed all the homeopatía and is that same one homeopatía, continuing basically the same principles exposed in which Organon", the one that continues practicing nowadays. The two basic pillars of the homeopatía are the Law of Similia and the Law of the Infinitesimales. We see now with calm as they are of ridiculos these two homeopathic fundamental principles.

The Law of Similia assures that a substance will cure a certain illness if supplied a healthy person causes the same symptoms or sintomas very seemed to the ones that he produces happiness illness. Of this law, or supposed law, drift the name of homeopatía: homois "similar" and pathos "suffering", in Greek. To be one of the basic principles of the homeopatía not to stops being quite surprising. If someone suffers an intoxication by arsenic. It will be cured administering him more arsenic? I diria that not. At any rate, given that any substance can be employed as a homeopathic remedy, ¿how is known that symptoms produces a specific substance? According to Hahnemann itself debia to carry out a process of test. It should be administered a person healthy quantities each greater time of that substance until to appear the first symptoms of intoxication, you said symptoms should be compared with the illnesses catalogued and if they were seemed to the symptoms of some illness, that substance passed to be considered useful for the processing of said illness.

The Law of the Infintesimales tells us that the more small be the most powerful dose will be the effect of the substance. The effects of the substance are promoted with the dilution of the same one; the more diluted be the most powerful substance will be its effect. The homeopathic remedies are prepared continuing dilutions decimals. It splits of a certain quantity of dissolution, a tenth is extracted splits and to said fraction they are added him nine we say of water distilled, the new resultant mixture is agitated and the process is repeated several times until arriving al degree of dilution desired. They are very habitual degrees of dilution of 1/1000000 or 1/10000000, and in some cases arrives at degrees of so extreme dilution that the probability to find some molecule of the supposed active substance in it prepared end is lower al 50%. If the substance is not soluble in water can be ground very finely and to be mixed with lactose, continuing a process of similar dilution but employing the lactose instead of water distilled. A composed one that is practically water distilled or lactose should result us relative, is not more than a placebo as the ones that are employed in the blind double clinical trials!! In the same way that in our Group B there was patients that were cured, some of the patients that respond to a homeópata they will be cured, ¿signifies that that the homeopathic remedies are troops? After it it explained in the introduction we see that the answer is a not flat one.

In the 19th century the medicine was not very developed, was based on erroneous principles and the remedies that supplied they were used to being themselves very aggressive, including for example the drainings among their habitual prescriptions.

With this panorama, is not strange that the homeopatía had a certain success. Supplying remedies totally inócuos al less did not cause got worse the health of the patient, and in some cases this could surpass the illness and to be cured for if alone in a way a lot more satisfactory than with the intervention of the medicine of the epoch. Nevertheless, nowadays the situation is radically different, the medicine and the farmacología present are disciplines that are governed for the scientific method and they have obtained unprecedented successes. On the other hand, no prepared homeopathic has surpassed never a blind double trial carried out with a minimum of guarantees against the fraud or the deceit.

After all it said fits to be asked ¿why the homeopatía continues being popular? They how them are fixed the homeópatas to justify the unjustifiable thing? A point that is used to emphasizing often is that the medicine treats illnesses while the homeopatía treats sick. Itself arguye that the medicine only looks to attack the symptoms of the illnesses, while the homeopatía treats al patient as an all, (be that what be). Of course, this is a nonsense, because though is certain that there are cases in which medicines are prescribed to eliminate or to mitigate the symptoms, (the most typical one would be the aspirin), is forgot that this does not constitute the norm. For example, the medicine gave a giant step with the discovery of the antibiotics, and exactly a substance as the penicilina what causes is to attack the raiz of the problem in no case the symptoms. In turn, ¿what does the homeopatía?

It studies the symptoms of the sick one and administers in quantities infinitesimales a substance that in large quantities causes those same symptoms in a healthy person, in another person!! Who puts more enfasis in the symptoms?; besides, he would say that with this to proceed does not he treat al patient as an unique individual or like an all.

Another point that is emphasized of the homeopatía is that the dissolutions infinitesimales that prescribes only they include natural products. This is a fallacy that would be able to apply to a pile of "medicines lternativas".

It seems that the natural products are per itself beneficial but they are forgot that the nature is full of poisons and tóxinas of vegetable or animal origin potentísimos. The antibiotics, employed by the medicine not by the homeopatía, they have its origin in a natural product but do not we forget that the natural products are exposed to the contamination; therefore the purification of these substances or its artificial synthesis represents a great step forward.

The Law of the Infinitesimales violates the principles established by the medicine, the farmacología, the physics or the chemistry, ¿how the homeópatas they justify it? Hanhemann thought that to the extent that the substance lost properties "material" based on successive dilutions, gained properties "spiritual". Nowadays, the properties "spiritual" have been replaced for mysterious energies or by vibrations of is not known that; no cultured one pseudocientífico present would be such but mentioned energies that cannot detect neither to show, and the homeopatía is not any exception.

Relating to this will be interesting to emphasize the case of the Dr. Benveniste. Benveniste headed an article published in the year 1988 in Nature, in which seemed to establish that a dissolution very diluída of a certain antibody could unchain a reaction in human leukocytes. The surprising thing was that "very diluted" signified in this case a dilution of a part among 10120!!

This signified that did not exist neither a single antibody in the final dissolution. How it explained it Benveniste? For him, the water had a species of "memory". It could retain the structure of the antibody, so that although this no longer been present, the water could unchain the reaction in the leukocytes.

It seemed that this study gave a certain credibility to the Law of the Infinitesimales; nevertheless, there would be that to notify first that that study was in part subsidized by an important French business of homeopathic products. Of course, this by if same does not discredit the investigation carried out, but a team sent by Nature al laboratory of Benveniste showed that the experiments were estadisticamete badly controlled, that not measures had been taken to eliminate causes of systematic error and not a solid base for the affirmations existed that were carried out in the article. The experiment only was reproduced by an Israeli team; curiously the person responsible for carrying out the recount of leukocytes that had reacted was the same one!! It seems therefore that the Law of the Infinitesimales continues without experimental confirmation and continues contradicting all the laws acquaintances of the physics and of the uímica.

The homeopatía is a medical worship that takes advantage of the ignorance of the people to prescribe useless remedies and besides to charge because of it. The health of the people is something too delicate as to permit that itself juege with her and is because of it that al the same as those of products miracle", the products homeopaticos should disappear of the pharmacies.

Document elaborated by Ferran Terrasa.

Senoterapia.- Invented by an Italian doctor, does few years. It is a matter of diagnosing illnesses by the form of the female chests and to cure with a smooth massage on the same.

Magnetizadores.- For imanar al water, they deceive to many people, therefore the water and analogous fluids do not be able imanar.

Magnetizadores. Robert Park, of the American Physical Company

"I know no scientist that this affirmation be taken seriously... is another mania. They go and they come with bracelets of of copper and crystals, and that type of things, and this will pass also" - Robert Park, of the American Physical Company"

"The atoms of iron of an iman are crammed together in a solid state in which an atom is next to another. In your alone blood 4 atomos of iron they are found in each molecule of hemoglobin, and they are separated by too large distances as to form a magnet. This is easily ascertainable puncturing your finger and placing a drop of blood near a magnet." - Michael Shermer

The Magnetoterapia is a type of "medicine alternative" that affirms that the magnetic fields have curative powers. Some they affirm that the magnets can help the broken bones to cure faster, but the mayoria of the material stems from those that affirm that calms the pain. Great part of the backup to these notions stems from testimonies and anecdotes, and can be attributed to "effects placebo and other effects companions of its use" (Livingston 1998). There is not almost any scientific evidence supporting the magnetoterapia. A largely it publicized exception is a study to double blind carried out in the School of medicine Baylos that compared the effect of magnets and magnets simulated in the sick knee of 50 patients of post-polio. The experimental group reported a significantly greater decrease of the pain that the group of control. There has not been any repetition still of this study.

A study less publicized in the Ney York College of Medicine Podológica found that the magnets had no effect in the healing of the pain of heel. After a period of 4 weeks, 19 patients carried a staff molded that incluia a sheet magnetized, while 15 patients carried the same staff but without the sheet. In both groups the 60% reported of improvements.

To spite that have had virtually no scientific test of the magnetic therapy, a growing industry is producing magnetic bracelets, bands, staffs, girdles, mattresses, etc... and announcing miraculous powers for its products. The magnetic market may be being approached the 150 annual million dollars (Collie). (Lerner announces that the sales in United States can be of middle thousand of millions, and that in the remainder of the world arrives like a lot to two times that figure) The magnets are becoming the election preferidda for chiropractors and other "specialists of the pain". The previously alfarera Marylynn Chetkof sells products of Russell Biomagnetics, and announces that the magnets are better than the soothing, or that to live in pain (Collie). Even one contractor of the construction as Rick Jones this trying to invest in the present magnetic insanity. The it has founded a company called Optimum Health Technologie Inc.s (Tecnologias for the Health Optima) to market its "Magnassager" (Magneto-masajeador), a portable vibrator with magnets al price of 489$. Jones announces that its invention "is not alone another appliance to give massages" The says that uses a magnetic field for help to circulate the blood while massages the muscles. Jones obtained 300000 $ of the investors and spent all it in "product development and marketing" Neither a cent was destined to scientific studies of the apparatus before sending it al market, although the gave 20000$ to a Fisiólogo to evaluate its apparatus "to assure me that was not a pot".

The affirmation that the magnetism aid to "to circulate the blood" is common among the defenders of the magnetoterapia, but there is not any scientific evidence of that the magnets do nothing to the blood. Even against the evidences that the magnets do not have another effect that the placebo, the teorias abound of how function. Some they say that the magnets are like a massage shiatsu; other they affirm that the magnets accept al iron of the hematíes, even other they affirm that the magnets generate an alkaline reaction in the body (Collie). Bill Roper, leader of Magnetherapy affirms that "The magnets cure neither they calm nothing. Everything that it causes is to place your body in its normal state so that can begin the process of healing" (Collie). As there is averigaudo this does not remain of the all clear.

Some defenders of the magnetic therapy seem to base their belief in a metaphysical conviction that all the illnesses themselves due to a species of desequelibrio or gave-harmonia in the energy. The equilibrium or flow of electromagnetic energy should be restored to recover the health, and they suppose that the magnets are capable of do that.

The rabid lawyers of the magnetic therapy are athletes like Jim Colbert and John Huston (golf), they Give Marine (American soccer) and Lindsay Davenport (tennis). Their belief is based on little more than reasoning post-hoc. It is possible that the relief that a magnetic belt provides a golfer with a problem of back, for example, be not simply a function of the effect placebo or of the regressive fallacy. Well due to the aid of the contribution of additional heat that the belt causes. The product would function equal of well without the magnets. Besides, the sportsmen are not given to the tests scientific more than what the manufacturers are it of magnetocacharros.

The athletes are not the only lovers of the curative powers of the magnets. The Dr. Richard Rogachefsky, an orthopedic surgeon of the University of Miami, affirms to have used magnets at nearly 600 patients, included persoas that habian been shot. The it says that the magnets "accelerate the process of healing". Its evidence? It can explain it looking at the X-rays. The Dr. William Jarvis is a skeptic this respect. He says: "Any doctor that is supported in clinical impressions, in which they think, in which they see, is a lunatic" (Collie). There is a good reason why the scientists do studies controlled to double blind for testear the causal efficacy: to prevent the Autosuggestion.

The Dr. Mark S. George, an associated professor of psychiatry, Neurology and Radiología in the Medical University of Carolina Southern, in Charleston, did an experiment controlled on the use of magnets to treat the depression. Only it studied 12 patients in 2 weeks, nevertheless, asi that its results are little significant.

While the sales of magnetic products continue enlarging there are a few scientific studies in motion. The University of Virginia is testando magnets in patients of fibromialgia. The universities of Miami and Kentucky are doing tests in people with syndrome of tunel carpiano (Collie), In the present, nevertheless, we do not have any good reason to believe that the magnets have no curative power more than the crystals or the bracelets of copper.

Ionizers of air.- Say to enlarge the iones negative in the air because are marvelous for all. They studied the apparatuses, many not even are capable of forming iones.

Collector of orgones.- The orgón is a telúrico-sexual energy, they are like the elementary particles of the sexual energy (as the quars that form the óctuple path, but of orgasm), and to have many, the German says that promotes this deceit, he is very convenient.

Psychoanalysis.- Fascinating form, invented by Freud to remove money to the bourgeoisie and credulous by the style.

Technical biocibernética quántica holográmica.- Invented by a called "professor" Pere Ribalta, of Sabadell. At present has been condemned to various years of jail, by the damages caused in sick that continued their processing.

Spiritual healing.- The beneficial spirits of the skies or even the same God cure our illnesses provided that we have faith and at times money that to donate.
    a) Christian science.-Species of medical Church, that cures based on faith. The healing is the eternal salvation. The prayer and not to commit sins the best profilaxis.

    b) Lourdes, Fátima. Mendujorge and more.- Catholic Miracles for all the inclinations. The Virgin one María in plan nurse.
The religions almost have always considered of some form the persistence of life after the death, even there are people that have been very serious that relate facts that apparently are out of the normality. All these beliefs are false, being at present justified happinesses situations since the purely scientific point of view.

We value the science as factor of progress, but also we frighten us of their implications ¿we do It of rational form or moving us for instincts?

It obtained of Blogalia, author Javier Armentía

It published in Territories, Science and Future, The Mail, Wednesday October 15, 2003

The public perception of the science comes mediated by numerous factors, that often nothing they have to they do with the content and real reach of the investigations, but with popular ideas that go writing down, favored since the mass media and, often, encouraged from sectors interested in causing to be worth their opinions. In general, always is used to commenting itself that exists a functional scientific illiteracy in a part of the citizenship: the ignorance on fundamental aspects of the science and the present technology is used to show itself in surveys of opinion. In different surveys that have gone carrying out in the last decades the people is shown how can believe that the man lived together with the dinosaurs, how they do not understand the atomic structure of the matter or many other "gaps" in the objective know-how. In the Eurobarometer, a survey that comes itself carrying out since fifteen years ago was included in 1996 a question to value the knowledge of the genetic technologies on the part of the Europeans. Two thirds of the polled said that was correct the affirmation "the natural tomatoes do not have genes, only the genetically modified have them".

Nevertheless, the appraisal that is established on the science is a lot more positive than what goatish to conclude of the state of ignorance. In the same Eurobarometers, the European citizen is seen how grants in general a lot of value to the science, placing in her a high confidence at the moment of the resolution of important problems as the environmental, the illnesses or in general, by his capacity of improving the quality of life. Recently the study has been published " socialPerception of the science and the technology in Spain", promoted by the Foundation Spanish Science and Technology (FECyT). The polled in this work, valuing in a scale from 1 to 5 in which 1 signified that there was not any association and 5 a complete association, they related the science with "progress" (4,35), "welfare" (3,74), "wealth" (3,55), "opportunities" (3,55). They cause note the authors how the association with the progress is greater that other characteristics that the scientific-technological advances are used to relate to themselves.

In this manner, the idea that would be able to obtain of the state of the social perception of the science would be in a way positive: we value the science, although we do not know it. An obvious conclusion, exactly in the direction that work the common plans in this sense, would be to favor the communication on science, the education, and to promote the vocations at the same time that to carry out politics of investment in science that permit the creation of a true European scientific space not only as motor of the industry, but with the capacity to involve al civic.

The reality, nevertheless, sample that there are sectors of the science in which that appraisal falls, or in general, in which a doubt is established or even one fear before the own science. The matter of the genetically modified agencies is a good example where is shown how the scientific investigation and the popular opinion are separated in an important way. The effective campaigns of warning (often without rational justification some) on the part of some sectors of the activism ecologist have obtained that the perception of it "genetically modified" be very negative. Of little serves that the large multinationals of the biotechnology have promoted an almost idyllic image of the advance that would be able to suppose these techniques in solving the hunger in the world, or to improve the quality of the cultivations. The shadow of the doubt on the harmlessness of the products has obtained that, even (or mainly) in the political plans they have themselves established moratoriums or you program of contention before these new products.

The force of the words converts to some in true taboo: only to mention them does that the people be positioned critically (no matter how more be recognized the ignorance by what does not like or why is feared). The fact that mainly the way of information on themes of science be the mass media general practitioners (in the first place radio and television) in which the scientific information occupies a tiny percentage of the broadcast time, something that the own polled qualify as insufficient, facilitates the one that certain ideas be transmitted acríticamente. A recent example, that still promotes warm debates in the all the social scales they constitute it the effects (presumed) of the radiation emitted by antennae of phone system. Leaving aside the fact that no adequate study contrasted has managed to show the carcinogenic effect of the antennae (neither neither of the use of the mobile telephones), and in spite of the fact that the investigations establish that these technologies work inside a margin of adequate risk, simply to speak of "electromagnetic radiation" supposes that many people be chirped that they are somewhat harmful.

In announcements of television we can hear things since a product "protects against the harmful electromagnetic radiation". But is not the light an electromagnetic radiation? It not the waves of radio are or those of TV? The own heat arrives us in the shape of infrared radiation, the same one with the one that obtain that the remote controls do their function. A world without electromagnetic radiation would be a dead world. Confusing in this manner al public, we would be able to think, would be criminal if itself not a perception of the harmful thing mediated by political campaigns against the phone system included, for example, where plays itself to associate the "radiation" also with another taboo word: "radioactivity".

Nothing has to see a with another, but in a world that survived to a tension of decades with the threat of the nuclear war, all it related to that world continues us seeming dangerous and desasosegante. Far away they are the years in which the detergents provided a "white nuclear" : to the fifties the science of the atom was perceived as one of the greater advances, in spite of the military use of the same one to ends of the II World War. But subsequently all an antinuclear activism managed to cause to change to the public opinion: all the radioactive thing is dangerous.

It is evident that such maximalismos they are not harmonious with a scientific attitude that should value always the risks and the consequences of form less impassioned. But is also evident that we move from a lot more sociable form and less critical than what would be convenient. The fact that when a doctor requests for a patient a diagnosis by means of nuclear magnetic resonance almost systematically hide the two last words, by the almost instant association that we establish among "nuclear" and cancer, is a symptom of that the things are not being done well.

The high appraisal that put al adjective "natural" is the other face of the same currency that does taboo to the scientific terms. Seems that all the natural thing was intrinsic good (in spite of the fact that so natural they are the virus as any infectious agent or poison that exists in the nature). It suffices with glance over the announcements of any type of product to find how the propaganda disinformation in this sense is exercised.

The fact that many people prefer a "natural medicine" indicates the ignorance and the prejudice that establish: in fact, some two thirds of the conventional medicines they have active principles that are "natural", but the industrial process permits, adequate, to establish the form of application and the adequate dose that do it an effective processing. On the contrary, and serve as an example, a cooking (natural) of plants recetado as a true panacea by a medicine that tells themselves alternative supposes a dosificación incontrolada: neither how much medicine can be known exactly we are I consume neither we can control other substances that they are being introduced at the same time.

The fashion of the natural thing set against the artificial thing continues existing, but takes advantage of our ignorance to sell us something that, really, is not science, but pure pseudociencia.

(courtesy of J. Merelo)


By Ana I Carry - Madrid

Jesus Torbado publishes a book on the apparitions marianas in Spain.

Jesus Torbado had only a long year to be documented on the apparitions marianas and the tinglado that surrounds them. A member of the Coteries of Prayer of the Holy Rosary notified him in June of 1998 that did not do more long its investigation. Otherwise, the book would never come to be printed because the prophets announced the end of the world for the month of March of 1999. The same one Torbado, that during two years and a half has been delivered to travel through Spain to speak with its peoples and to be a witness of first hand of the apparitions marianas that travel through the peninsula (of Garabandal to The Escorial or of The Palmar from Troy to the Pedrera), could verify in Cantabria that the end of the world did not arrive neither in March neither neither in August when the eclipse of It gave al traste with all the theories milenaristas. During this time the writer has failed to contemplate the Virgin but he has been a confidant and friend of many people that affirmed to have done. Fruit of this experience has born the work ¡Miracle, miracle! (Plaza & Janés) «a book tremendously enriquecedor and with the charm of to have known a lot absolutely marvelous people. Ingenuous and believing and that opened you the heart simply by nothing».

This journalist, tanned in the reports, affirms that the messages that gives the Virgin to the almost always profetisas are «reactionary in the political thing and fundamentalists in the religious thing. The faithful deserve me a lot respect and this is not more than an anthropological demonstration of the human species, that is to say, this is not new. The man, since standing the monkey was put, has needed to believe and to be felt protected by someone stronger than he with which that need applies it to a belief or to a vision. There is people that knows this or that senses it, and takes advantage of that need. Then it forms political parties, form religions, priest is named or union leader. He puts the umbrella that the people needs and this comes since the night of the times and is not more than a contemporary demonstration, on the one hand of the need of the individual to be felt protected, and by another of the passion of many people to be impose on the others», affirms the author from leon who has been able to verify how around the apparitions, certain or not, manipulators arise always that try Of the situation to do business. The apparitions marianas are not neither approved neither reproached by the catholic Church to which «does not interest him that this be finished, because are thousands of Christians the ones that are behind all this and they would lose many faithful» affirms the journalist. For Jesus Torbado the phenomenon of the apparitions of the Virgin is imaginary: «do not I believe in the demonstrations marianas, I believe in the hallucinations and the day that I see it or have a hallucination I will believe, but up to now I have not had none. He turns out to be very hard me me to to believe that a woman of modest life, that lived 2000 years ago, he walk strolling for the clouds dressed with diamonds, golds and crowns. He turns out to be rationally impossible me to accept», concludes skeptic in spite of to have been present in many apparitions of the Virgin.

The apparitions marianas are a business that, without no control, swindle to people with a lot of faith and avid of hope. This fact was what more impressed al author during the elaboration of its book. «What more has impressed and disturbed al same time are the thousands of sick, some terminals, that piled at the door of the sanctuary of Carmen López in the Higuerón during three or four nights expecting that cured them. That is really impressive. People that resisted the inclemencies of the time and that sufría tremendously, whose family they carried them hopeless there expecting that they cured them. In November passed I asked him appointment and the number gave me 3420 for to be cured. There were sick terminals sleeping on the threshold of its door. I remember that the person that more time passed with her, was not more than three minutes inside its house, and 5000 pesetas gave it as a minimum» adds Torbado who ridicules on the control of Estate on the honest contributing.

Carl Sagan

Carl Sagan does a very interesting analysis on the case of Lourdes. It so happens that since the "apparition" of 1858, some a hundred million people have visited Lourdes with the hope of to be cured of an illness that the medicine "official" has failed to conquer. The Catholic Church (ICAR) has rejected the authenticity of an enormous quantity of cases, and only has accepted 65 in almost a century and medium.

Cases exist well documented of people "hopeless" that have been cured without medical intervention, although they are very scarce. This is not the case of the effect placebo. It is attributed simply to "spontaneous healing", there is not apparent any reason so that the healing be given, and nevertheless is given.

If the 65 cases are considered in almost century and middle accepted by the ICAR, these cases are of tumors, tuberculosis, optalmitis, bronchitis, paralysis, etc. But none is for, we say regeneracion of a member or of a thorn number clipped. Of the 65 healings, there is a proportion from ten to one more than women that of men. The probability of healing after visiting Lourdes is then, of approximately an in a millon, they have so many odds of being cured despues of visiting Lourdes, like they have of gaining the greater prize of the loteria, or of dying in a plane crash, for example.

The spontaneous healing of all the types of together cancer is estimateed in something among one in ten thousand and one in a hundred thousand. If only five percent of those that go to Lourdes they were by cancer, would have that to have had among 50 or 500 priests "miraculous" unicamente by cancer. It given that only three of the 65 priests verified were cases of cancer, the index of spontaneous healing in Lourdes seems to be lower that that of any another place. In other words, a sick one would have more probability to be cured spontaneously (or "miraculously" if prefers) being remained at home without doing nothing instead of going to Lourdes. Evidently, if it is spoken with one of the 65 cured, is going to be very difficult to convince it that was not its trip to Lourdes what cured its cancer.

This is an ilustracion clasica of the fallacy post hoc I straighten up propter hoc (despues of the fact, therefore, owed al done)

This does not it have to do with the effect placebo, that in the mayoria of the cases produces a "cures false", which is fatal for patients that consider a treatable illness the medicine.


It was born in New York November nine, 1934 .
Sagan It studied in the University of Chicago, where received a Ph.D. in astrophysics.
Married with Ann Druyan.
Extensively it recognized by its scientific works, more is recalled for its efforts by enlarging the diffusion of the science since a vision reasoned and skeptical.

"The majority of the agencies in the Land they depend on its genetic information, that is 'precableada' in its nervous systems, in greater degree that of its information extragenética, that is acquired during its lives. For the human beings, and in fact for all the mammals, is al contrary. Still when our behavior still significantly is controlled for our genetic inheritance, we have, through our brains, an a lot more rich opportunity to create new cultural paths and of short-term behavior. We have done a species according to the nature: our children will be difficult to raise, but its capacity for new know-how will enlarge in a lot of the capacity of survival of the human species. Besides, the human beings we have invented, in the more recent few tenths of percent of our existence, the knowledge not only extragenético but also extrasomático; information stored out of our bodies, of which, the writing is the most notable example."

(Of "The Dragons of Eden", The Dragons of the Edén)

There is not guarantee that the universe will conform to our predispositions. But I do not see how will we be able to treat with the universe - so much the exterior universe as the interior - without studying it. The best way to avoid abuses is that the population in general be scientifically literary, to understand the implications of such investigations. In exchange for the liberty of investigation, the scientists are obliged to explain their works. If the science is respected a priesthood closed, very difficult and arcane for the comprehension of the person average, the dangers of abuse they are greater. But if the science is a topic of interest and general worry - if so much its delights as their social consequences are discussed regular and competently in the schools, the press, and on the table family - we will have improved enormously our possibilities to understand how is really the world and to improve it him and to us."

(Of "Reel' s Brain", The Brain of Reel)

Its contributions
  • Carl Sagan was head office for the discovery of the high superficial temperatures of Venus and the causes of the seasonal changes observed in the appearance of Mars.
  • It gained the Prize Pulitzer for not-fiction in 1978 by The Dragons of the Edén:
  • Speculations On the Evolution of the Human Intelligence.
  • In 1980, its series in 13 chapters for the services of public television "Cosmos", became one of the most popular series in the history of the American public television.
  • Carl Sagan was the "David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences" and the Director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies in the University of Cornell.
  • Was an important contributor to the missions of exploration Mariner, Viking and Voyager.
  • It obtained the Medals of NASA by Exceptional Scientific Achievements, Achievements in the Program Apollo, and Distinguished public Utility (two times).
  • The international prize of Astronautics: the Prix Galbert.
  • The prize Joseph Priestley "by distinguished contributions al welfare of the humanity".
  • The Prize Masursky of the American Astronomical Society.
  • And in 1994, the Public Welfare Medal, the highest honor of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • Director of the Division of Planetary Sciences of the American Company of Astronomy.
  • Director of the Section of Astronomy of the American Company for the Advance of the Science.
  • President of the Section of Planetología of the American Geophysical Union.
  • Publisher in Leader of Icarus, the main professional magazine of studies of the Solar System.
  • Cofounder and President of the Planetary Society, the largest spatial interest group of the world.
  • There is an asteroid, the 2709 Sagan, in its name.
  • More than 400 popular and scientific articles published.

  • Carl Sagan died Friday, December 20, 1996 , at age 62.

Books (of some version exists in spanish) :
  • Intelligent Life in the Universe (with I. S. Shklovskii)
  • The Dragons of Eden (1977) : Speculations on the Evolution of Human Intelligence
  • Murmurs of Earth: The Voyager Interstellar Record (with F. D. Drake, Ann Druyan, Timothy Ferrys, Jon Lomberg and Pretty Salzman Sagan)
  • The Cosmic Connection: they Go Extraterrestrial Perspective
  • Other Worlds
  • Mars and the Mind of Man (conRay Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, Bruce Murray and Walter Sullivan)
  • Intelligent Life in the Universe
  • Reel' s Brain (1979) : Reflections On the Romance of Science
  • Cosmos (1980)
  • Contact (1985) : TO New
  • Comet (1985) (conAnn Druyan)
  • To Path Where Not Man Thought (1990) : Nuclear Winter and the End of Arms Race (conRichard Turkish)
  • Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (1992) : TO Search for Who We Till (conAnn Druyan)
  • Even Blue Dot: TO Vision of the Human Future in Space
  • The Demon-Haunted World: Science ace to Candle in the Dark
  • Billions & Billions (1997) : Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium (Posthumous, published by Ann Druyan)

It swindles pure and hard..- up to now we have seen effects more or less subjective so much by the side of the patient as on the part of pseudomédico. Nevertheless great he splits of the techniques of curanderismo they are a matter of an authentic swindle. The habitual method utilized is that of diagnosing a nonexistent illness, to mount all a paraphernalia espíritual-magical-medical and to say that evil has disappeared. The greater or smaller endow scenic of the supposed sanador they will give it fame and money. More serious still they are the swindles on sick real (and at times very serious) that place their confidence, the unique thing that remains them, in these salespersons of illusion, they are used to being the sad and most flagrant cases of families destroyed or ruined by the "arts" of these peoples.

Psychic surgery

Without support, surgical team or anesthesia faith healers inprovisados do complex healings, like extractions of tumors using only its hands or, ¿something more? The desperate people resorts to desperate measures. The ones that have been you kill of this deceit they have paid the price, but the lie is not limited the Filipinos. The cirugia psychic has returned a Latin-American phenomenon, we see it for all the countries in small churches and groups and far from the view of the I publish. Its magicians and timadores cause they pass for true faith healers and they remove the people their money and also the opportunity of a true medical processing. The operations are carried out in dark rooms where the trap is facil to hide, but still in the most open conditions the trick is dificil to detect. The procedure begins asking him al patient that go to bed in a table looking at toward the sky to see toward God but immediately the true reason of this will be seen. There is no I try by maintaining conditions of asepsia.

Al to finish the procedure the false clean surgeon the area of insercción with the towels. All the operacion can be carried out in minutes. When it finishes the patient can examine the results, there is not cut any type tracks, incisions or scars.

Now we look at as this convincing operation is carried out:

Before the arrival of the patient the psychic surgeon prepares the tools for his farce:
Blood simulated, cotton eating colorant, a plastic bag and several you throw of bacon with a lot of grease. These articles are used to create some small containers called loads. They function asi: The bacon is put in the market and is saturated with colorant. This will be the convincing tumor that is extracted of the stomach of the patient, then the market itself full with a good one dósis of blood simulated, the gloves avoid the incriminating evidences in the hands of the surgeon, form a ball with the market and the load is list. the load itself hidden where be less evident, the container of the cotton for example. The timador is assured that itself be not seen and then passes the patient. To this it tells him itself that look at up, in some procedures him is placed down the mouth. In any of the cases, this gives al supposed surgeon a favorable position to disguise its contrivance. The cotton has nothing to do with the hygiene, the purpose to rub the estomago is to give him opotunidad to hide the load with the palm of the hand before massaging the area. The faith healers psiquicos are not more than some timadores

The faith healer of Chimes stars in a space of Tele5


Telecinco emits today, from the midnight, the report of investigation 'The eradicator', in which is shown how a called 'psychic surgeon', that carries seven years 'operand' in Chimes, deceives its patients, sick people that see in it its salvation.

In 'The eradicator' is counted the history of Andrés, previously operative of crane of the construction of Barcelona and old active militant of the Witnesses of Jehovah, that carries 7 of its 52 years 'curing' in its consultation of the poor district of Chimes to patients that arrive from every Spain, because its fame has transferred borders.

He assures that he is a 'psychic surgeon' because with the alone aid of a simple scalpel and their hands, he he says, he is put in the bowels of their patients and 'he eradicates' tumors and 'he fixes' what the doctors are incapable to cure in the quirófanos.

The protagonist of the report prepares his zone of operations with meticulousness. First he draws the contour of the stretcher with salt and he impedes that nobody transfer it and near him he places a basket with cotton where hides a simple scalpel with the one that carries out the supposed incisions that, miraculously, they do not leave not even an I scratch.

Through the incisions reserve guards extracts the tumor or the cause of evil of the sick one, that is not another thing that vísceras of hogs, lambs or birds.

The reporters locate, even, the establishment where the 'sanador' acquires the espinazo of hog with the one that simulates human backbones. As for the blood with the one that stains its operations, treats in reality of pigment mixed with other liquids.

The day that the police stops him, Andrés is carrying out a delicate operation in the testicles of its first patient.

1.2 Example of the scientific method

Almost everyone has seen some time a similar experiment to this:

We suppose a market of light material. An extreme of the market has a mouth, that can be maintained open, for example by means of a hoop; this extreme maintains itself on something that hot the air as a stove or a mechero.

The market raises itself and swells in all its volume. At this time itself loose, and is elevated to the ceiling of the room, remains in the ceiling during a moment, and then falls slowly to the floor. What has occurred? Why has occurred?

Many forms to explain exist the events that are produced in the nature. The type of explanation that accept depends on our know-how and of the supposed that we have accepted. The explanation that convinces a person, cannot satisfy to no other. Asking the question ¿Why is elevated the market to the ceiling?, different answers can be given.

A) animistic Answer

"Because wants to be moved away of the fire". This answer satisfaría to many children and even to some primitive people (although at present there is who "they find" a relation with the parapsychology).

The animismo is the belief that all the natural objects are found alive and they possess soul. The fact that the market be elevated is not more surprising than the one that a boy walk toward a door. An example is the Chamanismo.

The animistic world is a chaotic world therefore all the objects behave according to their natural impulses. Surviving in this world implies to be capable of knowing what is what is going to occur subsequently, and if is possible to control it in some measure.

B) magic Explanation

The magic is defined like the art to produce effects or to control events by means of enchantments, spells and rituals.

The image of the scientist as the magician of parlor, capable to carry out all kinds of tricks, is not possible to find it at present. It does more than one century was current that the scientists gained money doing demonstrations of parlor on sparks and capable chemical products of producing foam.

The primitive man should be confronted situations that could not control. Then he believed in the existence of upper beings that could do things that to the humans were not them permitted.

C) supernatural Explanation

Has been a "miracle". In other words, exists some to be that is capable of interfering in the natural processes and of producing events that ordinarily would not occur. Of equal form that some kings and rulers, this to be has the property to violate the laws of the nature, even when originally these they have been created by him. A curious case, that denotes the low existing cultural level in Spain, is that courses of miracles in Malaga are announced, for 150 euro.

D) theistic Explanation

Theism is the belief in a God al that him is considered creator and governor of the universe. "Is the will of God". Have had or not, a miracle, all the things occur according to a plan ordered by a to be supreme. If laws obeyed by the nature exist, is he who has created them; if some event violates these laws, he is the only head. In last instance, all he occurs because he desires him and direct or indirectly he produces him. This belief is borne for many people, even by some scientists.

Nevertheless since the scientific point of view explains very little, because explains too much. If all the things himself due to the divine will and if that will is found above the human knowledge, is that we do not know anything. On the other hand if he exists, or a divinity he existed that established originally the natural system and his laws, in any shape or form that be to established, he is to owe of the scientist to decipher the nature of these laws.

And) Explanation teleológica

Teleológico, signifies directed toward a definite end, or that possesses a last purpose. "The hot air by nature tends to be elevated", Aristotle as said. By means of various experiments he can be verified that the heat is found associate with the elevation of the market.

It is the air that full the market the one that originates that this stretch and is stuffed. It is the air of the interior of the market the one that absorbs heat, being heated and transporting the market to the ceiling. Why the existence of an invisible substance is accepted like the air? It is not because we can feel it directly, but because helps us to explain other phenomena that can perceive. Not all the concepts of this type survive al passing of time.

In the plan teleológico we find deeper explanations than they seek more general purposes. Thus we can say that the hot air is elevated so that the land can be chilled and the plants can grow, and thus we have food to eat, and the chain can be extended enormously. These explanations give rise to philosophical discussions.

F) empirical Explanation

Empirical it signifies based on the practical experience, without trying to understand why the fact has been produced.

* Principle of Arquímides: When a body submerges in a fluid, is pushed up by a force that is equal al weight of the fluid displaced person.

Archimedes lived in the Greek city of Siracusa toward the year 200 ane. His principle discovered it when the king I Wound, asked him how could know if the crown that had been bought was really of gold. This so valuable object should be tried not destructive form. Archimedes while was found in the public baths had an idea, and left running along the streets of Siracusa, dress to the usanza of the that is to say naked, Greco-Roman public baths, shouting Eureka (" I have found Him").

The application of his principle distinguishes the leads of the gold, submerging the crown in water, the leads is lighter than the gold and therefore 1 kg of leads occupies more volume than one of gold. Archimedes to weigh the crown in the air and in the water, if out of gold would lose weight in al water 5 percent, and if out of leads 8 percent. In this way showed that they had swindled al king, gaining an imperishable fame, while the destiny of the goldsmith was less fortunate.

Subsequently a simulation in Java is shown, of an experiment that permits to verify the principle of Arquímides, relative al push in liquids. A solid hanging of a dynamometer submerges in a liquid (by means of the dragging of the mouse). In this case the measured force is reduced, being equal to the difference between the weight and the force of push.

They can change (inside certain limits) the values preselected of the densities and of the area of the base and height of the body acting on the fields of corresponding text. After pressuring the key "Intro", the program indicates the new values of the depth, volume displaced person, force of push, weight and measured force. A value is supposed g = 9.81 m/s2 For the acceleration of the gravity. If the message appears "Maximum exceeded" with letters in red, is necessary to select another rank of adequate measure.

* Law of Gay-Lussac: When is heated (or chills) a gas to constant pressure, itself expansiona (or contracts) proportionally al increase (decrease) of the temperature.


When the temperature enlarges, the air of the interior of the market enlarges likewise of temperature. It is verified that when enlarges the temperature the volume of the gas grows likewise

This it can be explained seeing in detail the behavior of the molecules of gas

Less agitation

More agitation

As a result of the agitation, the molecules of gas exercise a certain pressure on the walls of the market Al to rise the temperature of the air, the agitation of the molecules enlarges likewise; for which they exercise greater pressure on the walls of the market, what has as consequence the increase of their volúmen.

These two principles differ of the prior explanations in two important aspects: they are quantitative, they tell us the magnitude that fits to expect of an effect, and they can apply to other experiments besides the one that we are describing.

These principles can apply al case of the market with hot air. According to the law of Gay-Lussac, al to heat the air itself expansiona, therefore displaces an exterior, colder quantity of air to the market, that more is weighed that the hot air of the interior. Then by the principle of Archimedes, the body submerged (that is to say the market with hot air) is pushed up by a force that is greater that its own weight. In this way the market is elevated to the ceiling. When the air in its interior is chilled, returns as heavy as the air that surrounds him and the weight extra of the market, is sufficient to cause to descend.

Both principles are examples of empirical laws, that describe as faithfully as possible, what is what happens.

Feynman and the scientific education

Although never they have heard to speak of Richard Feynman (1918-1988) its breath surely have them grazed in some moment of their lives, above all if they have had the luck to enjoy one of those teachers that entertain horrors teaching science and causing feeling the pleasure of the own intelligence. Feynman was not the typical one físiqueiro of shirt of lines with the pocket petao of pens of cuatrocolores and look loss in a multidimensional space that caricatured with precise cruelty Jerry Lewis in The nutty professor. Al contrary: brilliant, seductive and deslenguado, the biography of Feynman reveals to a willing type to enjoy the life, whether doing and teaching physics, or as member of a group of samba and assiduous interpreter of frigideira in the carnival of River.

It was exactly in one of its stays in Brazil where took place the anecdote that today them cuendo, collected in ¿Is Vd in jest Mr Feynman? Our man had passed various months giving classes to Brazilian university students, amazed by the character memorístico of the studies of physics and engineering: its students knew al dedillo all the definitions but they were incapable of applying them to real problems; they noted attentively everything that said the professor but never, never, they asked a question on what listened. Al final of the course was invited to count their experiences as the professor before an abundant representation of the university community.

The conference room was full. I began defining the science as a form of understanding the behavior of the nature. Then I asked: ¿there is some good reason to teach science? Of course, no country can be considered civilized unless triqui, triqui, triqui?... And there they were all saying that yes with the head, because thus is like they think.

Then I said, ¿This of course is absurd, because ¿what motives we have to think that we should be to the height of other countries? There it has to be some serious reason, not only that other countries also do it. I spoke then of the utility of the science, of their contribution to the improvement of the human condition and all that, causing them a little.

And I continued: The objective of my chat is to show them that in Brazil... ¡is taught absolutely nothing of science! It could see them to be agitated thinking: ¿How? Nothing of science? Is a stupidity!, but if we have all these courses?

()...So I maintained the book of elementary physics that used and I said: In no place of this book experimental results are mentioned, except in a place where there is a ball that he rolls by a plan inclined and he is counted to where the ball has arrived al tip of a second, two seconds, three seconds, etc. The data even come with errors so that if one analyzes seem them authentic experimental results, a little by up or under the theoretical values. To the need to correct is mentioned the experimental errors, what is stupendous. The problem is that if we calculate the value of the acceleration from these data we obtain the correct answer. Nevertheless, a ball that rolls by a plan inclined, if really the experiment is done, should employ part of its energy to conquer the inertia and to begin to roll, what does that with the real data we obtain a value of the acceleration that is 5/7 of the theoretical value. Thus therefore, this only example of an experiment is something totally fictitious. Nobody has done to roll never that ball, or they would not have obtained this result!

Also I have discovered another thing, I continued. Passing the leaves al chance and putting the finger in any page I can show them the problem; what there appears is not science, but memorización. So I will be it sufficient brave as to do it now, set against this audience, and to put the finger in any place and to read them a phrase any.

And thus I did it. Brrrrrrrrrup - I put the finger and I began to read: Triboluminiscencia. Triboluminiscencia is the light that al is emitted to crush crystals... ¿Is this science? At all! What here we have is what a word signifies in terms of other words. We have not said anything on the nature, nothing on the fact that when one crushes crystals light is produced, and why is produced. They have seen some time to a student to try it? It they will not see, therefore do not they be able.

1.3 Skepticism and critical thought

The people we tend to group our know-how and we want to know the reason by it what occurs a specific thing. We ask us which is the relation between a concrete experience and some another experience. Along the history of the humanity large thinkers have existed, that have influenced a lot in the subsequent development. The majority of the times we doubt of the diverse reasons that are presented us to explain a phenomenon, some, even we believe in very few facts, this vision of the reality is what skepticism is called.

Frequently to the skeptics is described us as robotic, cold, and inhuman people, this is false. As everyone we have beliefs (or convictions as some prefer to call them), generally of rational type, supported in the logic, in scientific know-how and in facts verified, never in the mere desire that something be certain. As for the coldness, is completely false, possibly we appreciate different things. The skeptics we are not less impassioned, imaginative or sensitive that the credulous, and we are used to having a lot better sense of humor.

About the skepticism Very important

In spite of all the facilities and the great technological advance that the science has achieved for the humanity along its history, at present, as always, an enormous disinformation on various aspects of the human knowledge exists. It is observed that for many motives (¿serious deficient education one?), that a great number of people does not manage to distinguish easily between a possible reality and a fictitious reality.

This difficulty in separating the real thing of the unreal thing, permits the apparition and proliferation of people or groups organized that promote the disinformation with the objective of obtaining advantages of some type (monetary, political, etc.), and with this end we encourage consciously the disinformation and the ignorance.

You ask that we do us

How cure quickly a terrible illness? How know the future and thus to prevent possible misfortunes? Some upper company exists that worries about me and protects me?

These they are you ask obvious that a person with the minimum of discernment has carried out in some phase of her life. Who has not had countless times problems of health, of money or sentimental, problems that put to test to the last bit of emotional and physical resistance?

Sadly, the life for an enormous majority of the population is a succession of shortages without end, whose origins many times come from the own environment and family education, passing for a deficient school education, and finalizing in a company disorganized and done not prepare to resolve elementary and immediate problems.

In this context, more natural nothing than seeking a board of salvation in any hand that extend for apparently help, seeking easy and immediate answers to complicated and difficult problems.

Right to the doubt

The stiff education that our companies have imposed, limits since early our capacity of rebellion against ideas and preconceptos acquired, and by this reason, we tend to accept almost all it "established" as being something intrinsic true and irrevocable. The conclusion is that there are millions of people that do not know that they have the right elementary, so much as to eat and to breathe, and is the right to the doubt. All we are born with this right, that of asking, to investigate, to question and to require tests before any affirmation carried out, be of the cuño that fuere, scientific, political, religious or economic, but very few people exercise this natural right.

The skepticism is the school that proclaims the use of this right, the irrenunciable right to the doubt, the right that every person has to not to be deceived, manipulated or directed with end excusos and hidden. The skepticism is the healthy attitude that causes rolls with smoothness the progress of the science, inviting us to question continuously the bases of the disciplines that gave al man the supremacy on the planet, as are the Physics, the Biology, the Chemistry and other, and that bear to our technology.

A skeptic does not accept any truth established to priori, but al final of a long deductive chain accepts it, that is to say, when already there is not arguments that be able invalidarla. On the contrary, other schools of thought proclaim some truths as being legitimate by own right, and that need own arguments to deny them.

Exije you test

So the next time that someone promise you miraculous a cure through a stone, you ask you before: ¿how a stone can influence in my health?, when someone speak you of spiritual energies that carry out miracles, thinks if some type of energy exists that cannot be measured neither studied (without need to be an expert in Physics), and when they tell you that has been seen an inhabitant of another planet, You ask you before, how is that thousands of professional astronomers that watch the sky day and night never have seen nothing.

Exije you test, you comply not with any thing. The person that doubts is the one that should be convinced, and thus, has all the right to choose that you arm prefers, like he would like to be convinced, and that logical method desires to employ.

It fits al proponente to respond to all and each one of the doubts raised and to leave satisfied al skeptical in question. If some doubt persists after presented all the possible tests, then the skeptic has all the right to continue being skeptic.the load of the test always falls on who affirms something.

The skeptical movement utilizes the network to spread its ideas

The irrational thing invades us, being the world of it paranormal its more visible tip of spear. The skeptical movement tries to fight this plagues based on “to promote the reflection and the doubt”. Their associates, among the ones that prestigious scientists are included, thinkers or journalists of the entire world encourage any person to participate. Internet is one of their more powerful tools.

Thursday, 14 June 2001
A 15% of the population resorts faith healers when has some problem of health; between one fourth and the half of the Spaniards has some esoteric belief; the two main magazines ocultistas of Spain sell more than 50000 monthly copies. The list of this type of data is very long, which is worrying, at least for that that skeptic is considered.

You are a skeptic? Surely you, reader of IBLNEWS, be a skeptic, although be not conscious of it. Of all forms, if do not you have very clear that is that to be skeptic, we encourage you to that read the following questions. If your answers are negatives, ¡happinesses!, you are a skeptic convinced:

It is possible to guess the future? They visit the Land beings of other planets? The human being with the dinosaurs lived together? He is next the end of the world? He has shown the NASA that Jesus resurrected? He is dangerous to travel by the triangle of the Bermudas? He has Satan weakness by the Spain deep? There is capable people to operate without causing pain neither any scar? Is the future written in the stars? The haunted houses exist? They can double spoons with the power of the mind? Is possible to be communicated with the world of the spirits? It left God written in the Bible the past and the future of the humanity? They are the pyramids Egyptian work of beings come from other worlds? The spirits through the ouija are declared?

That they seem stupid some of happinesses questions, but as we say, many people would respond convinced with a yes. For Manuel Toharia, director of the Museum of Sciences of Valencia and member of the ARP- Association for the Advance of the Critical Thought, the skeptical position is born as reaction to the enormous quantity of beliefs based on affirmations of people that assume certain authority and/or that have sufficient credibility among credulous people (" if did not there was fools do not there would be engañabobos").

Origin of the word “skeptical”

Perhaps it have more than one that that sound him badly to be “skeptical”. In opinion of Félix Till, director of the Museum of Sciences of San Sebastián and present president of the Association, “in Spaniard the skeptical word has negative connotations that it not the Greek word had “esketikos”.

In fact, the skepticism arises in the Greece Classical as philosophical school and its creator, Pirron of Elis, defends that is impossible to know something of totally certain way. The skeptics, therefore, they give him that sense, as recalls Till us: “all to know is provisional and revisable. Doubts of all. Do not you create in “popes” of any type”.

The skeptical movement arises 25 years ago in the United States of the hand of the philosopher Paul Kurtz, that helped by scientists of the size of Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov, Martin Gardner or Stephen Jay Gould create the CSICOP, the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of it Paranormal. In the Spanish speaking world the idea jells in 1985 with the creation of the company ARP, the Rational Alternative to the Pseudociencias, in which continuing the wake of the CSICOP, begins to gain gradually followers in the fight against the irrational thing. According to Luis Alfonso Gámez, journalist of The Mail and historic member of the ARP, “in the middle of the years 80, ufólogos, astrologers, parapsicólogos, faith healers and others they camped to its wide by the mass media without nobody carried them the opponent. Until ARP began to sound in the media”.

Nevertheless, the fight is uneven. For Toharia, “the battle against the seudociencias has few official supports. In reality, seems as if to the rectors of the company not the level of deceit imported them that suffer its fellow citizens, generally by a deficient cultural level in the scientific thing”. According to Gámez, “the American government has preferred that the people creates in UFOS, so that itself be not spoken of governmental secret projects”.

Internet: powerful tool

Internet has been converted for the skeptics in the media and expansion by excellence. As well it says Javier Armentia, director of the Planetarium of Pamplona and former president of the ARP, "in the last years, the work of ARP has been seen renewed with new contributions, of professionals of many fields of the intellectual activity. It has been possible thanks to the popularization of that new main square that supposes Internet".

And the fact is that the network has permitted that the message of ARP arrive the Spanish speaking skeptics of the entire world well through the webs of the association and its supporters, well through the list of Hispanic skeptical mail. According to Gámez, “Internet is now for us a so much basic tool of projection toward the outside as at the moment of the internal work: meetings of the executive, exchange of opinions with the associates, sessions of the counsel of editing of our magazine, etc. It is a front in which does not pass week without we receive some request of adhesion.”

Not only the pseudociencias

More than one it would be able to think that the skeptics are limited to fight against the pseudociencias. Nevertheless, to be a skeptic supposes something more, just as he reflects itself in the statutes of the association: "The ARP prompts the development of the science, the critical thought, the scientific education and the use of the reason; promotes the critical investigation of the affirmations paranormales and pseudocientíficas since a rational and scientific point of view, and divulges the information on the results of these investigations between the scientific community and the public in general."

On the other hand, the skeptics do not try to eliminate the beliefs by itself. As well it says Toharia, “a belief, without more, could be criticized but the liberty of the people to believe what quieran is above it others (another thing is that quieran to impose that belief by the force, clear). But a belief that disguises itself of science is not more than a fraud that one must denounce before the company as such”.

In turn, according to Félix Till, “Never we have put us with the beliefs; we have put us with those that say that its beliefs are shown scientifically. For example, never we have put us with the ones that they believe that the Holy Savannah is the mortise of Jesus. Yes we have done it with the ones that they say that the Science has shown that is the mortise of Jesus.”

It remains a lot by doing

Besides by it it commented previously, besides thinking and to live like a skeptic, can be acted as such: according to Toharia “the ones that we have given that step we think that does not suffice with having a skeptical position, but one must avoid that you determined "informers" continue deceiving to the people; is a matter of the ones that, taking the language and the appearance of the science, do not they do more than spreading beliefs without base Rational some”.

In final, it is a matter of fighting and to submit to skeptical analysis not only it paranormal, but every knowledge situated in the limit of the to know scientist and every affirmation that be supported in it, in the pseudociencia or in the false science. Thus it remained reflected in the editorial one of the first magazine of the Company: “one must finish with the fallacies to the ones that get the talkative pseudocientíficos to defend their presence in the mass media and for be not object of jokes, the main one of which is to dispute that all the ideas are respectable and they have the same right to to be defended. Not, is not true. Not all the ideas are respectable. The stupidities are not respectable; are stupidities. And, at times, dangerous. When a pseudoarqueólogo ventures that some human races descend of extraterrestrials and other not, is doing a nothing subtle exercise of racism, and the racism is not respectable, and one must denounce it”.

The editorial one also referred to the influence of the pseudocientíficos through the powerful mass media. In opinion of Luis Alfonso Gámez, though the press written has gone withdrawing of their pages the world of the pseudociencia, the audiovisual media continue being a place of reference for the followers of it paranormal. It remains therefore a lot by doing, above all so that not cases occur like those of politicians that support the inclusion of the homeopatía in the Public Health or that respectable Universities collect in their seminars studies plans, courses or subjects on astrology.

1.4 Some cases in the data processing

Hoaxes (mockeries, deceits)

Messages of solidarity to help sick children that do not exist, false warnings of virus, doubtful methods to be done millionaire. Any Cadena SER good to collect e-mail addresses and to saturate the servants.

There are other that repeat the plan of the old chains of the luck that received for postal mail that calamities foretell you if you cut the chain and they promise you to become millionaire if continue it. I have received many chains in which told itself "do not I know if will be certain but by the doubts I it reenvío". For the fearful, superstitious and magufos, the reality is that I have broken infinity of chains and me nothing has happened.

Basically, we can divide the hoaxes in the following categories:

* You Alert on incurable virus
* Messages of thematic religious
* Chains of solidarity
* Chains of the luck
* Urban Legends
* Methods to be done millionaire
* Gifts of large companies
* Other
* Messages taking the hair to the people that sends hoaxes

There are other messages that do not be born as hoaxes but they can be you considered like such:

* Poems and messages of love and hope (they are used to coming in a file of Power Point very heavy).
* Messages to join with programs of affiliated.
* Jokes and photos that circulate in chain.

Some details on the hoaxes
(Information expanded in Rompecadenas)

  • They do not have firm.
  • Some they invoke the names of large companies.
  • They ask al receiver that send it to all its contacts.
  • Large misfortunes they threaten you if it not reenviás.
  • Obtaining directions of mail.
  • Congesting the servants.
  • Feeding the ego of the author.
  • They cause they lose time and money al receiver.
  • They congest the servants.
  • They fill us of publicity and trash.
  • They cause they lose value to chains created by people that really needs it.

Hoax "Virgin of Guadalupe"

This message is a hoax and should not be reenviado. The text is the following one:


Do not break the chain, is miraculous, they ask something!! Recall their words: "I am Not I aqui that am your Mother?"

Letter to the Virgin of Guadalupe:
Beautiful Virgin of Guadalupe,
I ask you in name of all my brothers of the world
That you bless and protect us.

You give us a test of your love and kindness and receives our prayers and prayers.
Oh Purisima Virgin of Guadalupe, you reach me of your son the perdon of my sins, bendicion for
My work, remedy to my illnesses and needs, and everything that you create convenient to ask for my family.

Oh Holy Mother of God, do not despise entreat them that we direct you in our needs.

They wanted brothers, above all I mean that the Virgin of Guadalupe is good and miraculous and always he accompanies us in any place.

This letter has as end to turn around al world to receive miracles with this beautiful chain.

You should do 19 copies and to distribute them in the following ten gave and to change receive a test of the Virgin by very impossible that be.

This letter is sacred, please do not make fun of her, if receive it and distribute it before the 10 gave, tendras a surprise and a very large happiness.


Spam (Mail done not request)

All the users of e-mail are usual to receive each day various advertising messages done not request. This practice, although is not illegal in many countries, since there is not laws that prohibit it, damages to all the users of internet, inclusive to whom they carry out it.

At present, is calculated that more than the 30% of the and-mails (some 500 million for day) that are sent they are not requested, that is to say, they are spam. This means that just as you are reading this theme, various millions of and-mails are being sent done not request. The spam is damaging for all, even for the business that sends it.

Generally, the directions are stolen or bought. I I receive each day two or three offerings of databases with millions of directions of email al increible price of US$ 35.

This people clarifies, with great dignity, that does not copy neither sells software. Also they put in its messages (that said be in transit they are spam because they are not requested) "buy not bases trout, all our bases include active and real directions".

Although there are some spammers that send you only a message, also there are many that all the weeks with the same message with enclosed files on the need to filter they bombard you the water of the shower with an analysis of several pages, that nobody reads. At any rate, if each person that opens a web page is going to send you a mail, the e-mail would be absolutely inservible.

It is neither logical that send me a message in format HTML promoting a new videos distribution service, exclusive for the city of File, when I live to thousands of km of distance. This, besides offering a negative image on the business that sends the spam, sample the little utility of the databases bought.

On the other hand the spammers invoke a supposed law by which the message that are sending cannot be considered spam if has a form of to be removed. This is false, that law does not exist. Besides, the majority of the times if one answers the mail asking to be eliminated of the list, the unique thing that causes is to confirm that its direction exists. Therefore, it is convenient not to respond never to a message done not request.

The best is to apply filters or rules of message to avoid to receive messages of those directions, a program for the environment Windows, gratuíto and very good, is K9. Another option, is to be complained al postmaster of the one that sends the spam.

It more dangerous of many mail done not request, is that can include files with virus or Trojan, and to be activated whether of involuntary form al to try to read them or even if has a program of mail as Outlook (of Microsoft) they are activated automaticamente.

It is indispensable the to have always a program antivirus and another that detect the Trojans, the detector of Trojans (or you program spy) more complete and free is Ad-Aware, that can be dischargeed of Lavasoft. It should have a lot of care with this type of programs, therefore some they eliminate the Trojans, but they are other Trojans.

The proliferation of filters and virus themselves this becoming a problem for the "spammers" professional. It so happens that many ISPS impede that the commercial messages done not request arrive at the mailboxes of the users. Of course that are not willing to see as that millionaire business collapses and now they have centered their efforts in bombarding to the users of the applications of instant messaging.

AOL IM, Yahoo Messenger, ICQ and of course MSN Messenger are since some weeks ago a place where is not rare to be found with a mense promoting a product and that do not you know as has arrived to there. It is a matter of spim, during the 2003 they were sent 1000 million spims, although in the 2002 they were 500 million, as collects in an investigation Ferris Research. And for this year itself prevén swims more neither nothing less than 4000 million.

I play of Words: 'Spam'

It published in the cultural supplement 'Territories' of The Mail, 13.10.04

Tin plating Spam

The English tongue enjoys a peculiar inventiveness to create words, and also of a special capacity to consolidate them in the speech. Thus it has been seen with "spam", the term with which already all the users of the e-mail call to the messages parasitarios that enter their mailbox. There is who thinks that the word is a technical term of the data processing formed well by means of acronyms, either for abbreviation of another more long voice. But did not it be born thus. "Spam" is the name of a mark of food popularized in the middle of the 20th century. It was a matter of a variety of meat in tin plating, put in the American market by the business butcher Hormel Foods in 1937. It served of food to the American soldiers and Russians in the II World War, and in the years 50 and 60 began to be exported to various places of the world. It was then when what in principle had called itself "Hormels Spiced Ham" remained reduced at four o'clock letters of? Spam?, of greater hit commercial. Nothing of this would explain how was able "spam" to arrive at the data processing slang, not even metaphorically, if was not because the tronchantes Monty Python used it to the saciedad in a sketch of its "Flying Circus" in 1969. In it, some vikingos entered a bar and they asked the letter to the maid, who an inexhaustible one recited them retahíla of dishes... in none of which lacked the "spam" : «eggs with spam, spam with tomato, bacon and spam »....Al the same as the e-mail done not want, the spam invaded it all and there was that to swallow it of all forms.

José María Romera


In recent months the attacks have been popularized phishing. It is a swindle that utilizes electronic mechanisms, as can be a message of mail or a web page, to convince al user that reveal sensitive information, that goes private and personal from data to the keys of access to services.

The attacks phishing are possible by the combination of some weak mechanisms of protection of access that generally they are not another thing that a simple combination of user and password, and the innate capacity of the people to reveal any information to whom ask it us.

The method utilized with more frequency in the cases of phishing massive consists of the shipment of messages that simulate to be envoys by someone on who in theory we trust (habitually banks) and where itself us report that, by any circumstance, is precise to reveal our password of user or well "to verify" our data filling a form.

The experience shows that the majority of the people simply acts in good faith and any petition of private data is believed.

Bibliography recommended:

Bouvet, J.F.(dirección), Iron in the espinacas, Taurus, Madrid, 1999

Dawkins R., Destejiendo the rainbow, Tusquets Publishing, Barcelona, 2000

Sagan C., The World and its Devils, Planet, Barcelona, 1997

Sánchez Ron J.M., History of the Critical, Quantum Physics, Barcelona, 2001

Shapiro E., Physical without math, Alhambra, Madrid, 1981

You link recommended:

ARP-SAPC Company for the advance of the critical thought

¿The scientific method exists?

The page rationalist


Without God

List of appointments and famous phrases:

Believing is easier than thinking. MYSELF have there the reason that they have more believing.

"If the people is good only because they fear al punishment and because they expect a reward, then truly we are a pitiful group."
Albert Einstein

"If that to be is omnipotente, then each occurrence, including each human action, each human thought and each feeling and human aspiration is also Their work; ¿how is possible to think about hold responsible al man by its acts and thoughts before such to Be omnipotent? Al to give punishment and rewards, up to a point would be being judged to itself. How can it be combined this with the kindness and justice that are judged him?
Albert Einstein, Out of My Later Years (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950), p. 27.

"I cannot conceive a God that reward and punishes its creatures, or that have a will of the type that experience in us. Neither neither I want to conceive an individual that survives to their physical death; we leave that the weak spirits, by fear or by absurd selfishness, they value such ideas. I am satisfied with the mystery of the eternity of the life and with the awareness and the glimpse of the marvelous structure of the existing world, along with the fight dedicated to understand a portion, thus be lower-case letter, of the Reason that is declared to itself in the nature."
Albert Einstein, The World ace I See It.

"The ethical behavior of a man should be based sufficiently in the sympathy, education and the ties and social needs; is not necessary any religious base. The man truly would be in a poor road if he had that to be repressed by fear al punishment and by the hope of a reward after the death."
Albert Einstein, "Religion and Science", New York Times Magazine, 9 November 1930

"Do not I believe in the immortality of the individual, and I consider that the ethics is exclusively of human interest, without any superhuman authority behind her."
"Albert Einstein: The Human Side", edited by Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman, and published by Princeton University Press.

"The bases of the morality should not be clerks of the myths neither tied to any authority, be not that the doubt about the myth or of the legitimacy of the authority put in danger the base of the judgment and the irreproachable action. "
Albert Einstein

"If 50 million people believe a foolishness, continues being a foolishness."
Anatole France

Eh! I suppose that we are really immoral and horrible people because we refuse us to receive the idea of a large type in the firmament that requires to be worshipped and praised all the time and that, if you belong to the wrong religion or does not have religion, will send it to a field of eternal and subterranean concentration to freirse for always.
Kel Crum

Although it has said itself that the faith moves mountains, the experience has shown that the dynamite does it a lot better.
If it knows the author of this appointment, I will thank him a lot if causes knows it me.

The truth will do you free. The lie.. believing.
Pepe Rodriguez.

The problem with the world is that the stupid are sure of all and the intelligent are full of doubts.
Bertrand Russell

Well, the evolution is a theory. Is also a fact. And the facts and the theories are different things, not steps in a hierarchy of growing certainty. The facts are the data about the world. The theories are structures of ideas that explain and they interpret the facts. The facts do not disappear when the scientists debate rival theories to interpret them. The theory of the gravitation of Einstein replaced that of Newton in this century, but the apples did not remain suspended in the air expecting the result. And the humans evolved of ancestros simian whether through the mechanism proposed by Darwin or by another that lack for being discovered.
Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution ace Fact and Theory" Science and Creationism, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1984), p. 118.

Always it has seemed me that the major sin of all is "to presume to know the mind of God "...
David B. Stephens, Ph.D.

Its article on the supercherías of the creacionistas affirms that in Alabama, all the texts of biology now should carry adhesives notifying al reader that the evolution is a "belief without testing" and "should be considered as (only) a theory." With sights in the fair play, one would assume that the creacionistas likewise insist that these adhesives are adhered to the Bibles.
John R. Harris, Letter al Publishing, L.TO. Times

The old beliefs are difficult to eradicate even although they be demonstrably false
Edward O. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, (First edition, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1998), p. 256.

When the christianity took the control of the Roman Empire, suppressed the writings of its critics and even threw them to the flames.
Robert L. Wilken, The Christians Ace the Romans Saw Them (New Haven: Yale, 1984), p. xii.

The blind faith can justify what be. If a man believes in a different God, or even, if he uses a different ritual to worship al same God, the blind faith can decree that should die - in a cross, impaled, crossed by the sword of a Crusader, with a shot in a street of Beirut, or dynamited in a bar in Belfast. The memes of the blind faith have their own forms inmisericordes to be spread to itself. This is certain in the patriotic blind faith and political al the same as in the religious one.
Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene (New edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 198.

Source: The Rational Page

I surrender prior Start I surrender following